Saturday, May 23, 2020
Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1821 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2019/10/30 Category Literature Essay Level High school Topics: Bless Me Ultima Essay Did you like this example? Luckily, Rudolfo has not died and was born on October 30, 1937, which makes him eighty-one years old at the moment. Married to Patricia, who had sadly passed away, helped with scholarships for students with the need for financial support. He was born and raised in New Mexico, US, and attended school in this area. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Characters In The Bless Me Ultima" essay for you Create order After graduating from the University of New Mexico, he became a public school teacher for seven years which was between 1963-1970. Not only that but he became director of counseling at the University of Albuquerque. After this, he started teaching at the University. It is quite noticeable that Rudolfo Anaya was a busy man. He has written many books and most involve Mexican American traditions.( Britannica)One of which being Bless Me, Ultima which was actually the first novel he ever wrote but continued writing new books which also became very successful. Later on, Bless Me, Ultima became a national best-seller because it describes another form of religion and Mexican traditions. This book was published in 1972. Rudolfo has received many awards due to all the well-written books he has made. These awards being, NEA National of Arts Lifetime Honor, Kellogg Foundation fellowship, the American Book Award, two Governors Public Service awards from New Mexico, and last, two National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) literature fellowships.(Formalities) Just because of all the awards he received, he did not take all the credit. As said by Rudolfo Anaya, ?Ive been thinking a lot about what this recognition means, and Ive decided its not just about methis award is about the people of New Mexico. This clearly shows how his confidence did not increase and remained humble. Instead, he actually gave some credit to the individuals from New Mexico for his writing. After reading a biography about Rudolfo Anaya, it was understood that a lot of the inspiration for Bless Me, Ultima came from his own family. While his mother, Rafaelita Mares, was Catholic and enjoyed of a stable house, his father, Martin Anaya, would rather move on from area to area as a nomadic herder. Just as in the book, Anto nios parents would have discussions due to having different opinions on lifestyle and where to live. Also, the book includes many religious themes and spiritual healing. Because of the great writing structures he had, it was really clear for the reader to understand the main point of the novel and acknowledge different forms if religion.(Rudolfo) Form, structure, and plot: The text, Bless Me Ultima, is not to lengthy and is 262 pages (without counting the Reading Group Guide, Q and A with Rudolfo Anaya). Also, it consists of veintiuno chapters, as said in the book, which when translated to english, means twenty-one. The chapters numbers in this book are written in Spanish rather than English due to the Mexican traditions throughout the text. Overall, this is significant because it gives an additional way to represent the latin background behind the chapters. Like most other books, Bless Me, Ultima, is written in a chronological order of events from when Ultima was introduced in the book until after all of the problems were solved. Flashbacks of other events are also presents in some areas in the text here and there. In the book, the main character/narrator, Antonio, has dreams in which important characters that have passed away show up when he is sleeping. Rudolfo Anaya also switches between different ideas such as questions, thoughts, and stuff that h as happened in the past. These ideas usually come from the characters in the book, one of which being Antonio, the boy narrating the story. From the readers point of view, it is inferred that the plot of the book is complex because many risky events are present. Throughout the whole novel, the main characters, Antonio and Ultima, struggle to conquer many issues with society due to the fact that individuals believe Ultima is a witch when in reality she is a curandera, a person who cures with magic and herbs. This is the main reason that makes the plot complex because this characteristics causes a lot of problems in the book that later get solved. Even though the book is said to be fictional, it can pass as real because of all the vivid details present page after page and all the clear details about religion and Mexican heritage. A noticeable change was present from the beginning of the book to the end of it. Towards the beginning, Ultima is introduced and moves in with Antonios famil y but as the book continues, she causes a lot of issues due to her magic. Point of view: In this case, the book is written in first person. Antonio Marez is narrating the story about his family and himself. Also, it is referring to events that occurred throughout the youth of Antonio which is mainly about magic. Bless Me, Ultima is written about events that happened throughout Tonys childhood. Antonio, the narrator, is the protagonist of the book. It is not clear to the reader the age of Antonio when narrating the story but he is able to look back and give vivid details to explain what he went through. Over the course of the book, Tony changes his perspective about religion and his belief. He starts questioning it and does not know what to think about it. Also, other characters influence Antonio majorly so he changes his point of view several times. While some people say one thing, some say another this so he starts to question more about life. With the authors point of view, he achieves that the reader clearly understands what is happening and makes it seem like we are living the book. Also, since it is is said in Antonios point of view, it seems like we are put in his shoes and it is easier to understand his emotions and what he is going through. If it was not written in first person, then we would have seen the story through the perspective of many characters rather than just one and it would be more confusing. Also, this would have caused the reader to be puzzled and not understand the real story. First person was the best way to go because we read the book about what one person went through and not several others. Character: Many different characters show up throughout the novel but not all have a big role as others. This leads us to the conclusion that some flat characters are, Antonios friends, father Byrnes, Lupito, Cico, Tenorio and his daughters, Tenorio, Narciso, Antonios sisters, Jason Chavez, and Chaves. These individuals show up in the book but do not make the a drastic change to the story. On the other hand, Ultima, Antonio, and Antonios parents are round characters because they are involved in most sections of the story and are put in tough positions that makes the story more interesting to the reader. If it was not for these characters, than the novel would have been more boring in a way because not a lot of suspenseful things would have occurred. Ultima can be a static character because she provides trust and characters can feel comfort around her because they can rely on her. She does not change while all of the other individuals shes around do. Gabriel, Antonios father, is a dynamic and co mplex character because he has to change some of his ways in his lifestyle in order to keep his family members and loved ones together. In this case, was to enjoy of a farming life instead of being a vaquero like his descendants. The characters in the novel are believable because the book took place in the older times and all of the characteristics go along with the setting. All were revealed over the course of the novel when Ultima was introduced. When Ultima was introduced, she started to affect other characters which was when they started to appear. As an estimation, there is around thirty-nine characters in the novel. Some being important, and others only making an appearance a couple times. The protagonist of Bless Me, Ultima is Antonio Marez because he was the main character and was narrating the story. On the other hand, the antagonist is Tenorio because he cause a lot of problems to Antonio and his family. Some minor characters include, father Byrnes, catholic priest and teaches Antonio and friends in catechism, Miss Maestas, Antonios teacher and see a lot of potential in him education wise, and Antonios uncle which is his moms brother. An important character of the book is Ultima. While age is not given, it is know that she is elderly; therefore, is very respected. She is a curandera which is a healer that uses magic and herbs (spiritual power). Often times in the book is confused as a witch. Ultima is very complex and wise and knows a lot about life. She develops an important bond with Antonio which is needed for the overall book. Her name is significant because it is in the title which gives the reader a hint that she will be important throughout the novel. When d escribing her in three adjectives, she is old, wise, and calm. A key quote said by Ultima is, ?It is because good is always stronger than evil. Always remember that Antonio. This is a piece of wisdom that Ultima gives Antonio since she knows a lot about life. Also, it shows the impact that she has had on Tony and how she gives him advice. Another character is Antonio Marez who is six years old when introduced in the book. He is the protagonist and is narrating events that occurred in his youth. For his age, he is really smart and is able to understand a lot of adult topics. Also, when going to school, his teacher, Miss Maestas, noticed huge advancement academically in a short period of time. He has a very special bond with Ultima and learns a lot from her. Lets just say that he learns a lot for his age and is able to understand certain subjects. At one point, he starts to question a lot about religion and life. In three adjectives, it can be said that he is bright, serious, and thoughtful. He goes through a lot of issues and has to solve them by either doing the right or wrong thing. Also, he switches from being a child to an adolescent and has learns that actions result in suffering through consequences. A key quote is, God was not always forgiving. He made laws to follow and if you broke them you were punished. The Virgin always forgave. This phrase, is the start of Antonio incorporating religion into the book. Later on, he will start questioning and affects the overall n ovel. Florence is another character in Bless Me, Ultima and is a young blond boy.
Monday, May 18, 2020
Observers are of the opinion that Ã¢â¬Å"it is very important for adolescent to feel that they have been listened to and understood and that their opinions have been taken seriously, because in the past their ideas may have often been discounted by adultsÃ¢â¬ (Robin, 506). There are several tests for identifying the affected cases. The American Academy of Pediatricians (AAP) has advised that the children below 7 years of age be observed with the indicative symptoms for over six months and for the older children, parent-teacher interviews, IQ and psychological testing and other forms of competitive mental and developmental examinations (Ã¢â¬Å"Attention deficit hyperactivity. .) Though this problem can be addressed and managed with medication and behavior therapy by experts in this field. From the parental angle, the child should be guaranteed enough sleep and praise for good behavior. Experts warn that any negligence in treating the ADHD affected children may take them to a more complicated life style in the future such as alcoholism, academic failure, inconsistent job preferences and acute disgust towards the law. Moreover, the height of degree of impulsive behavior may cause them severe damage in the peer relationship. We will write a custom essay sample on ADHD Facts and Myths or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now There has been a lot of conflicting information developed from the evaluation of such identified issues of ADHD related problems. The factors contributing to such an intellectual debate involved in the cognition and study of the impacts take us to the task of distinguishing facts from myths related to ADHD. More reliably, as Jensen suggests, the fundamental myth is that the issue is overemphasized while the fact remains that only a half of the affected children get treatment and the issue is largely ignored. Some myths blame larger class sizes and improper parental attention as the reason for ADHD; however, the fact is that such conditions have the only function with general distractions and the reality is ADHD takes its root from the brainÃ¢â¬â¢s functioning (62). Some other significant findings in this regard suggests that it is a simple problem related to acute disinterest in studies or listening; while the fact is that ADHD is a set of serious impairments of various emotional and mental functions in relationship with the controlling capabilities of the brain. As Brown points out, there is also a myth that this problem is the absence of willpower and that the ADHD affected persons behave only according to their interests and compulsion of the situations; however, the fact says that, though it may look like a will power problem, it is actually a problem in the cerebral functioning largely caused by chemical actions.
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
SCHIZOPHRENIA MEDICATION TREATMENT Introduction Schizophrenia is a disease of brain which disturbs the way brain cell communicate with each other and function, which is commonly caused by excessive production of dopamine. Furthermore, it cause serious psychotic symptoms which disrupts an individual quality of life, social deficit, abnormal social behaviors which often due to doubting and adapting unrealistic cases to realistic situations, and as a result, social isolation. For treatment of schizophrenia, antipsychotic medication is worldwide treatment which helps to prevent a relapse of psychotic symptoms and to enhance the quality of life by improving individual mental abilities. In addition, to improve the outcome of the treatment, monitoring patientÃ¢â¬â¢s status appears to be a strong nursing intervention in combination with medical assistances showing benefits. Also, early and accurate diagnosis of schizophrenia is necessary, because it is often easy to misdiagnose since it shares common symptoms with other diseases, such a s bipolar disorder, which also causes hallucination and bizarre change of personality. Antipsychotic medication and quality of life Antipsychotic medications optimizes the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s quality of life by ameliorating the symptoms of schizophrenia. The Patient could experiences a social deficits due to their disabled significant functioning in the community, such as Ã¢â¬Å"performance of work tasks, social interaction difficulties with other and motivationalShow MoreRelatedSchizophrenia: Types, Symptoms, Medications, Treatment Essay2472 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages Schizophrenia is a neurological disorder that affects the cognitive functions of an individual. The cause of this illness is unknown, but there are several theories of how an individual may acquire schizophrenia. Because there are many symptoms of the disease and because the symptoms can vary quite dramatically among several individuals and even within the same individual over time, the diagnosis of schizophrenia can be quite difficult. In the United States and Europe, schizophrenia occursRead MoreSchizophrenia: Types, Symptoms, Medications, Treatment Essay example2723 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesOTHER NEUROTRANSM1TTER SYSTEMS TREATMENT Schizophrenia is sometimes considered the most devastating of the mental illnesses because its onset is early in a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s life, and its symptoms can be destructive to the patient and to the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s family and friends. Although schizophrenia is usually discussed as if it were a single disease, this diagnostic category can include a variety of disorders that present with somewhat similar behavioral symptoms. Schizophrenia probably comprises a group ofRead MoreThe Treatment Prospects For Schizophrenia1571 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Treatment Prospects for Schizophrenia Cecilia Pivarunas Northern Virginia Community College Abstract Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that can present in many different ways. Most often, symptoms display in a negative or positive manner. While medications are on the market to mitigate symptoms, the optimal treatment method couples both pharmaceutical and psychiatric rehabilitation. The Patient Outcomes Research Team, commonly called PORT, has issued treatment recommendations for SchizophreniaRead MoreSeizures and the Brain1084 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescomponent in the biological paradigm for treatment of schizophrenia. At this early stage of understanding schizophreniaÃ¢â¬â¢s pathology, it was believed these chemicals were imbalanced and shocking the brain would force a rebalance of these vital chemicals. Once rebalanced, it was hypothesized the patient would no longer suffer from schizophrenia (Tharyan, 2005). The insight into treating neurotransmitter imbalances in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia began the treatment path to present day antipsychoticRead MoreSchizophreni A P sychotic Disorder1364 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSchizophrenia Schizophrenia is considered a psychotic disorder according to the DSM (American Psychological Association, 2013). Schizophrenia is one of the most commonly known of the psychotic disorders. A person who is schizophrenic must meet the following criteria according to the DSM (American Psychological Association, 2013). The person has to have at least 2 or more of the following Delusion, Hallucination, disorganized speech, Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, and negative symptomsRead MoreSchizophrenia in The Center Cannot Hold by Elyn Saks1580 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbad radio signal. (Saks, p. 13)Ã¢â¬ These words are the description of schizophrenia, written by a woman who was diagnosed with schizophrenia, Elyn Saks. Her book, The Center Cannot Hold is the memoir of SakÃ¢â¬â¢s own life experience and her struggle with schizophrenia, or as she puts it, her journey through madness. Although her journey did not lead to a full recovery, as is the case with many individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, Saks was able to live and maintain a life, despite her very negativeRead MoreSchizophrenia: Treatment and Diagnosis Essay1187 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Schizophrenia: Treatment and Diagnosis In 1809, physician John Haslam published an account of what he considered Ã¢â¬Å"A form of insanityÃ¢â¬ . Haslam described many symptoms that are relevant to modern day schizophrenia including delusions of grandeur and hallucinations. During the latter part of the nineteenth century, a German psychiatrist named Emil Kraepelin expanded on HaslamÃ¢â¬â¢s views and gave a more accurate description of schizophrenia as we know it today. Kraeplin startedRead MoreSubstance Abuse And Its Effects1575 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageshalf of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia in the United States also self-medicate with alcohol and other drugs (Elements Behavioral Health, 2014). This is suggested due to individuals attempting to lessen the symptoms of their disorder. As discussed previously symptoms can include hearing and seeing things that others donÃ¢â¬â¢t hear or see, problems falling asleep or staying asleep and problems with concentration and memory. In an effort to lessen th ese symptoms alcohol and other drugs are usedRead MoreIs Schizophrenia A Unique Mental Disorder?1335 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHealth Reference Series, schizophrenia affects 1.1% of the US population and the majority of those who suffer with schizophrenia go untreated or are unaware that they even have the disorder. Approximately 2,200,000 people in the United States suffer from schizophrenia, and they have a lifespan 20% shorter than those who do not have schizophrenia (Fentress, Moller 1). Schizophrenia is a unique mental disorder that is made up of distinctive characteristics, causes, signs and symptoms, and requires specificRead MoreImproving Schizophrenia With Mental Illness1591 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesImproving Schizophrenia with Risperdal Mental illness affects millions of people every day. One of the most debilitating forms of mental illness is schizophrenia. The Oxford dictionary defines schizophrenia as; A long-term mental disorder of a type involving a breakdown in the relation between thought, emotion, and behavior, leading to faulty perception, inappropriate actions and feelings, withdrawal from reality and personal relationships into fantasy and delusion, and a sense of mental fragmentation
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
1. Human resources is an essential department in any organization. The work performed by the Human Resource manager ensures that an organization will have a healthy workforce. Ethical issues permeate Human Resource management because HR managers are in place to ensure that human talent (capital) is used effectively and efficiently in order to accomplish organizational goals. A human resource manager should always consider alternative solutions to the needs of the organization as well as the effects these decisions will have on the lives of employees. The four elements of ethical programs are as follows: a written code of ethics and standards of conduct, training on ethical behavior for old executives, managers, and employees, and advise to employees on ethical situations at the fees. Every organization has a culture and that culture influences how executives, managers, and employees make organizational decisions. This is a key issue in why HR managers need to adhere to ethics in t heir respected organizations. An example of an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture is GoogleÃ¢â¬â¢s strive to maintain an open culture. Their culture is to have all employees be hands-on contributors, feeling comfortable sharing ideas and opinions. For 2. The responsibilities of a human resource manager fall into three major areas, which are, administrative, organizational, and Strategic. Administrative: focusing on clerical administrative and recordkeeping including essential legal paperwork and policiesShow MoreRelatedEthical Issues in Human Resource Management Strategies936 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEthical issues in HRM strategy Introduction The plans for managing an organizations structure, culture, people, training and development are referred to as HRM strategies. These strategies are also used to determine how employees fit in the organizations growth in the future. In business practices, the level of honesty and transparency is referred to as ethics. HRM strategies should guide employees on their workplace behavior. These strategies show the organizations expectations of its employeesRead MoreEthical Issues Regarding The Human Resource Management947 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesemployment relationship, some issues concerning ethics must be dealt with. The Human resource management section of any company is responsible for effectively and systematically managing people in the institution to achieve the desired goals. People must be managed productively. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also the responsibility of the HRM to ensure there is a healthy and safe workplace. This paper aims at identifying five ethical issues that exist in the field of HRM and then ranks the issues by the importance placed onRead MoreHow Ethical Consideration Affects Human Resource Management991 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHow Ethical Consideration Affects Human Resource Management You will encounter many decisions in your career. How you choose to handle them will outline your ethical values. The best companies value their employees just as much as their customers. Human resource managers play an essential role in applying ethical principles. Human resource managers set an example for the rest of the company, as ethical behavior trickles down from the managers, supervisors, employees, and customers into the localRead MoreChanging Roles in Human Resources Management1136 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"The concept of Ã¢â¬Å"human resources managementÃ¢â¬ implies that Ã¢â¬Å"employeesÃ¢â¬ are resources of the companyÃ¢â¬ (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, Wright, 2007, p. 2.). The human resources department traditionally has been seen by organizations as a necessary expense, rather than a value to the company (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart, Wright, 2007, p. 1). Human resources management involves many crucial jobs, some of which include handling people in a professi onal manner, good intuition and adaptability, creativityRead MoreThe Implications Of Business Ethics For Human Resource Management1457 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhat are the implications of business ethics for human resource management? Explain the potential role(s) of human resource managers in the ethical conduct of business. Provide examples where appropriate. Essay The concept of business ethics is gaining more and more attention from many different organisations. Business ethics relate to the ethical judgments of what is right and wrong in an organisation (Sparks et al. 2010, p.2). Human resource management in particular, demonstrates the implications ofRead MoreEthical Issues in Hrm Strategy1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEthical Issues in HRM Strategy Richard H. Hill Dr. Grace M. Endres July 18, 2012 Strayer University Abstract This paper concerns itself with the role of Human Resource Management and the role it plays in the development of corporate strategy. Additional, the paper addresses the issue of ethics concerning Human Resource Managers sharing information learned from a previous client with the new client. Identify the areas of overlap in the new client organization with others that you haveRead MoreHr Functions and Organizational Ethics1261 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHR Functions and Organizational Ethics HRM/427 Dr. Donovan Lawrence September 5, 2010 Human Resources professionals are responsible for several roles in the workplace, including implementing and managing policies, recruiting and retention, and training and development. The HR department is responsible for making sure that organizations conduct business ethically and that shareholders are treated ethically. The HR department must be able to monitor compliance with federal and stateRead MoreThe Ethics Of Organizational Behavior Essay1381 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespertaining to the topic, and interviewed Mr. Zammitti. A major topic regarding organizational behavior focuses on the ethical values the company works to institute and how those values aim to establish an environment supportive of positive behavior and little mitigation of conflict. In addition, the organization must be able to handle behavioral issues among employees, recognize the core issue, and develop programs to create positive change. Instrumentation Laboratory makes no exception when addressingRead MoreCode Of Ethics And Stakeholders1162 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages (Company Name)Human Resources Department commitment to stakeholders is very important and reflects the highest standards regarding professional ethics and conducts. All stakeholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ role in the company is vital for success. The human resources goal is to comply with ethical codes, policies and procedures as well as all state, federal, and national laws. (Company Name) has a reputation for integrity, and this integrity reflects the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s code of conduct. The human resources is a goal-orientedRead MoreHuman Resources, Strategy And Business Ethic1545 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHuman Resources, Strategy and Business Ethic Page Break Introduction The 21st century workplace environment is established on numerous reforms and transformations in different aspects that constitute the management of human resources. Therefore, the human resource departments in different departments have adopted different approaches to managing their employees. In this regard, most businesses and organizations across the globe have adopted different concepts of strategic human resource management
Law of Contract II Semester 2, 2011 Word Count: 1932 A partyÃ¢â¬â¢s right to terminate a contract arises from a particular type of breach of contract by another party. The facts of the breach and the nature of the term breached in each case inform the party with whose contract has been terminated, as to whether it is lawful or not. Common law rights to terminate arise in one or more of the following three ways: * Any breach of a condition of the contract; A serious breach of an intermediate term of the contract; or * Conduct that shows that a party is unable or unwilling to comply with the contract. We will write a custom essay sample on Australian Contract Law or any similar topic only for you Order Now Australian Courts have for sometime recognised a tripartite classification of terms in analysing whether or not a breach gives rise to a common law right to terminate. Australian courts have accepted that there is a category of term, known as a condition or essential term, for which strict performance is required, and that an aggrieved party is entitled to terminate for any breach of a condition, however slight. Contractual rights to terminate are of two main types: * Termination of the contract in total; or * Termination of the engagement of a contractor, in both cases arising from actual conduct, as described in either the contractÃ¢â¬â¢s termination clause or a term arising under statute. Frequently, the common law right to terminate is the most important consideration. In classifying whether a term is seen as a condition of a contract; a term may be classified as a condition by statute, by the parties or by the courts on the basis of the construction of the contract. A term may be classified as a condition on the basis of the express words used by the parties. However, before courts will conclude a particular term is a condition, with the consequences that any breach will entitle the aggrieved party to terminate, the parties must clearly have expressed their intention for the term to have this status. In assessing whether or not a term should be classified as a condition, the High Court has approved the statement of Jordan CJ in Tramways Advertising Pty Ltd v Luna Park Ltd: Ã¢â¬ËThe test of essentiality is whether it appears from the general nature of the contract considered as a whole, or from some particular term or terms, that the promise is such importance to the promisee that he would not have entered into the contract unless he had been assured of a strict or substantial performance of the promise Ã¢â¬ ¦ nd this ought to have been apparent to the promisor. Ã¢â¬â¢ In DTR Nominees Pty Ltd v Mona Homes Pty Ltd, Stephen, Mason and Jacobs JJ provided further explanation of the relevant test: Ã¢â¬ËThe quality of essentiality depends Ã¢â¬ ¦ on a judgement which is made of the general nature of the contract and its particular provisions, a judgment which takes close account of the importance which the parties have attached to the provision as evidenced by the contract itself as applied to the surrounding circumstances. Accordingly, in assessing whether or not a term is a condition, courts will consider whether or not the parties would only have entered into a contract on the understanding that there would be strict compliance with the term. Where a term is intermediate, the right to terminate depends on the nature of the breach and its foreseeable consequences. Although the High Court had previously hinted at accepting the doctrine of intermediate terms into Australian law, Koompahtoo Local Aboriginal land Council v Sanpine Pty Ltd was th e first case in which the High Court did so expressly. The first recognised authority to introduce intermediate terms was Hong Kong Fir Shipping Co Ltd v Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha Ltd, a decision of the English Court of Appeal. Hong Kong Fir was decided in 1961 and passed into the mainstream law of contract as understood and practised in Australia, although not formally adopted by the High Court until Koompahtoo. Any right to terminate under a provision of the contract terms requires careful consideration of the meaning of the words, particularly if the contract is unclear as to the meaning of the words. Additionally, even if the contract includes a termination clause, unless there is clear express exclusion of the common law right to terminate, the common law right remains active and equivalent to any contractual right to terminate. In the facts given, the contract between the Federal Government and the Australian Coastal Patrol Pty Ltd (ACP) has been partly performed. If a contract has been in large part performed, it is less likely that the breach will be substantial enough to warrant termination. In Carr v J. A. Berriman Pty Ltd, the principal entered into a contract with a builder for the construction of a factory. Two breaches by the principal caused the builder to seek to terminate the contract; a failure to deliver the site in the condition specified in the contract and a unilateral decision to remove from the contract the fabrication of steel framing. It was the second breach that was decisive in the view of the High Court in finding that the termination was effective. In its reasons, the Court noted that the loss of the fabrication represented about one quarter of the builderÃ¢â¬â¢s estimated profit on the entire project and the removal from the contract of that percentage of the overall value was a substantial breach. However, in Fairbanks Soap Co. Ltd v Sheppard the parties contracted for the construction of a machine for $10,000. The machine was almost completed when the builder refused to finish the machine unless he was paid a large proportion of the price, contractually agreed to be paid on completion. The builder was concerned that once he made the machine operational that the purchaser would not pay the contract sum. The purchaser refused to pay and terminated the agreement. The builder complained that he had only to undertake about $600 worth of work to complete and was therefore justified in insisting on the payment. But the court said that faced with such a deliberate breach of the contract terms the termination was legal. For ACP they had largely performed the terms of the contract by having four to five vessels active within the first year. They did however, have the minimum of seven boats by the start of the second year as declared in the contract. As well as the correct personnel and had continued to be paid by the Federal Government. It is not uncommon for those wanting to terminate a contract, to allow another opportunity for the party that breached the contract to Ã¢â¬Ëmend their waysÃ¢â¬â¢. Mason J proposed that: Ã¢â¬Å"If a party to a contract, aware of a serious breach, or of other circumstances entitling him to terminate the contract, though unaware of the existence of the right to terminate the contract, exercises rights under the contract, he must be held to have made a binding election to affirm. This in turn meant that the Federal Government should have brought to a standstill the work of the ACP until it had decided whether or not to continue the contract with ACP after their breach of the contract. However, as the Federal Government had continued to pay the amount specified in term four of the contract then ACP would be unaware of the suggestions to terminate their contract. It would therefore be unlikely that termination of contract due to this reason would be upheld in court. Overall, the Federal Government would be very unlikely in terminating the contract due to the breach of term 1, as it continued to pay ACP when it only had 4 to 5 vessels in service in which they had knowledge of this breach, but continued with the contract. During the period of May to July 2011, some vessels were put to sea without the required minimum of 8 personnel per vessel, many of which did not wear correct uniform during there deployment. Terms 2 and 3 had specified in the contract that each vessel have a minimum of 8 personnel and that they were to wear correct uniform whilst on active duty. These terms would be seen as conditions if they were discussed during the formation of the contract as being significant to the contract. In turn, this would allow for the Federal Government to terminate the contract with Australian Coastal Patrol Pty Ltd. These terms however could also be seen as trivial matters in the court and as stated in Hongkong Fir Shipping Co Ltd v Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha Ltd, it was considered Ã¢â¬Ëunthinkable that all relatively trivial matters could be regarded as conditions of the contract Ã¢â¬ ¦ It would ultimately be up to the courts to decide on the importance of these terms and whether they impaired the performance of the overall contract. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â [ 1 ]. Re Moore and Co Ltd and Landauer and Co  2 KB 519; see also Bowes v Chaleyer (1923) 32 CLR 159 [ 2 ]. Koompahtoo Local Aboriginal Land Council v Sanpine Pty Limited  HCA 61 [ 3 ]. Glanville Williams. Learning the Law. Eleventh Edition. Stevens. 1982. p. 9 [ 4 ]. Ltd v Tramways Advertising Pty Lt (1938) 61 CLR 28 [ 5 ]. DTR Nominees Pty Ltd v Mona Homes Pty Ltd  HCA 12 [ 6 ].  HCA 12 [ 7 ]. Koompahtoo Local Aboriginal Land Council v Sanpine Pty Limited  HCA 61 [ 8 ]. Hong Kong Fir Shipping Co v Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha  2 QB 26 [ 9 ].  2 QB 26 [ 10 ].  HCA 61 [ 11 ]. Carr v JA Berriman Pty Ltd (1953) 89 CLR 327 [ 12 ]. Fairbanks Soap Co. Ltd. v. Sheppard,  1 S. C. R [ 13 ]. Fairbanks Soap Co. Ltd. v. Sheppard,  1 S. C. R How to cite Australian Contract Law, Papers
However before this, Spain had its fair share of stability problems. The problems began all the way since 1851, but instead of going year by year, it is better to divide the causes in the following categories: political, military, socioeconomic, regional and religious. During the years previous to the war, Spain had a lot of political instability. Most think that the Left was more responsible for this than the right, for various reasons. Fro example between 1933 and 1936 the Left became very divided, which led to a lot of clashes between partied, within the same movement, preventing them from reaching any agreements. The Socialists refused to cooperate and Anarchist wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t join the Popular Front. Also the Left Wing was determined not to stay passive like their Italian and German counterparts. All this created a lot of tension between parties, which led to an inevitable confrontation. There was also the introduction of a variety of extremist reforms. We will write a custom essay sample on Causes Spanish Civil War or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Some of these were like divorce being allowed, Jesuits being expelled, and others. However these reforms on their own didnÃ¢â¬â¢t do much, it was the fact that they were so radical that upset the Right Wing. If this werenÃ¢â¬â¢t enough, when the Right came to power again, it made yet another radical change; they took all the reforms away. This instability eventually would lead to both sides being angry. However, politics in Spain were very influenced by the military, and it was because of the split in it that the Spanish Civil War broke out. In the years before the war, the military basically ran the country. They were overstaffed and over powerful. An example of this was 1930, when the army withdrew their support from Rivera, and thus he had to resign. However, during the Left Wing period (1931-33) most of the army officers were made to retire early in half pay. Which displeased the army greatly. The down side to this was that the army would support the opposite side, as opposed to the Left. However this didnÃ¢â¬â¢t happen, in 1932, General Sanjuro attempted a coup, which failed, precisely because the Army stayed loyal to the government. However in 1936, there was a split in the army, some favoring Franco, and some staying loyal to the Republic. It was because of this that the war began, because if they had all supported one side, it would have simply being another coup, like many Spain had seen. This split in the military was a perfect example of the division between the people in Spain. There were various events that led to the discontent of the people, mostly the peasants. Some examples are the Tragic Week in 1909 when there was a clash between the peasants and the proletariat. This was a clear example of the division there was between classes, and the wide gap in between. Then, during RiveraÃ¢â¬â¢s rule, in 1924 he suspended the Cortes, which angered a lot of the people. To top it off, the AustriaÃ¢â¬â¢s Uprising in 1934 was a clash between the army lead by Franco and the working class, which ended up in the deaths off innocent people. All this problems with the working classes only helped to make the Left Wing support larger. Having said that, the Right wing was backed up by the higher classes and the Church, which only fed the large gap between the rich and poor. Another factor to take into consideration is the roll the Church had. In 1851 the church had a stranglehold over education, and was very powerful like in most countries at the time. However after the Republicans were elected, they introduced new reforms (previously mentioned in politics paragraph) which took away some of the churchÃ¢â¬â¢s power, and expelled Jesuits from the country. However in 1932 The Ceda is created which starts to look out for the interests of the Church. We can see from this, maybe not so much that the Church had a very important role, but more so the abrupt changes between each sideÃ¢â¬â¢s views. Other events that show displeased people are the Regional problems Spain had, especially with Catalonia and the Basque. Both of which got partial independence granted and later removed from them, creating once more, many displeased people. In conclusion we can see that most of SpainÃ¢â¬â¢s problems come from radical decisions made by parties at both far ends of the political spectrum. This would have been fine in a country were most people agreed, however Spain was a widely divided country not only within the government, but also with its people and the classes dividing them. All this led to the discomfort of opposing parties, whom eventually decided they wanted to overthrow the government, the only problem was, this time, the divisions where much greater, and not only that but more powerful, which meant they could put up a fight, which is exactly what they did.
Friday, May 1, 2020
Question: Identify and describe an emerging social issue that concerns social workers in Singapore today. Answer: Introduction Singapore is known for its dual system of education and promotion of inclusive schools. The country has made a mark for itself in the domain of inclusive education for disabled children, however as envisaged by the social workers, there are disturbing attitude that continue to dominate Singapore. In Singapore there is a considerable population of students with disability who study in mainstream schools but the wider attitude of the people speaks of their apathy towards the disabled community. The aim of the paper is to examine disability and inclusive education as a key issue on the context of Singapore society, the ways the issue have evolved over the years and identification of gaps in the policies and schemes of the government. In addition, the paper also examines the policies of UK and EU in regard to inclusive education for the disabled people and proposes recommendations for the improvement in the current policies. According to Humphrey Symes (2013), Singapore has fared moderately better in its treatment of the children with disabilities. During the period of 1980s and the 1990s, families preferred to keep their disabled children within the confines of the private sphere. This may be attributed to the stigmatization of people with disability and the lack of coping mechanisms to deal with the situation. There is a segregation between the disabled people in Singapore and the Singaporeans (Poon,, Musti-Ra Wettasinghe, 2013). Surveys have shown that people in Singapore feel uncomfortable whilst interacting with the disabled people, thus alienating them (Loreman, Sharma Forlin, 2013). According to the Lien Foundation, only two third of the total population in Singapore are interested in inclusiveness and voluntarily share the public space with the disabled. Even parents are uncomfortable about letting their children interact with their disabled peers. According to the findings of the National Cou ncil of Social Service (NCSS) 62 per cent of the disabled people felt excluded and are not provided with opportunities Issue has evolved in the last few years The government of Singapore has made robust efforts to transform the lives of the disabled children and promote inclusion; the undercurrent of Singapore narrates a story of pessimism. There needs to be a change in the attitude of the people rather than mere financial support. It is found that 5 to 6 per cent of the children born in Singapore suffer from some kind of developmental problem. 2.7 per cent of the students in Singapore show symptoms of requiring special education and mainstream school being not a suitable option (TAN, 2016). It is predicted that the number of disabled children in Singapore are expected to rise higher. It is predicted that more children will be diagnosed with intellectual disabilities. Identification and discussion of gaps in social services provision In Singapore 75 per cent of the children with special needs are studying in the mainstream school (Boyle, Topping Jindal-Snape, 2013). Children with special needs are labelled as stupid. On the surface level, Singapore appears as a country that is pro-disability and the government has made considerable efforts. However, there are certain shortcomings that the government needs to improve. It is reported that individual experiences vary and not in line with the vision of the government. The initiative of satellite partnership may expose children to the 25 per cent of the student population who have more challenging needs but it has been criticized for lacking in depth and number (Florian, 2013). The Strait Times have reported that very few schools in Singapore have courses and modules that create awareness about disability. The schools do not provide meaningful opportunities to the students to engage with children who have special needs. A major recommendation would be the early integration of children with disability with those who are able-bodied (Thaver, Lim Liau, 2014). The executive director of Disabled Peoples Association, Marissa Lee Medjreral-Mills is of the opinion that not growing up and socializing with children with disability will create awareness among the able-bodied children. It will make them familiar about the ordeals and experiences of the disabled people and will make them more sensitive. According to Poon-McBrayer Wong, (2013), in case of workplace, employers who did not have experience with disabled children during their growing period are less likely to recruit disabled candidates for any job. On encountering disabled people first time in the workplace can turn out to be an alienating experience. Adults will find it difficult to communicate in the right manner with people with disability. Able-bodied children should be taught in their formative years the values of mutual respect towards their disabled counterparts. Therefore, both the agencies of school as well as parents need to guide children in a proper way. Examples of social policies/schemes implemented in welfare states, like UK and other European countries and criticism of the current social services in Singapore Disability is considered to be within the ambit of European Union (EU) and this also pertains to education which can be especially manifested in the case of inclusive education. The European Union is in charge encourages its Member States to promote policies and schemes through supplementing and supporting the action of their action whenever it would be necessary. According to Oliver, (2013) the EU has adopted certain pertinent policies in the direction of inclusive education. The EU supports the member states to foster the full integration of disabled children and the young people with special needs through appropriate education and proper training. The European Union has come up with the Disability Strategy 2010-2020. This is an important drive in promoting the principles of lifelong learning among people and inclusive education. The Strategy comprises of a series of strategies that schools need to adopt in their general education system to catalyse education and promote effective individualized support (Oliver, 2017). This was provisioned with the aim of enhancing the academic development and social development that would be in consonance with the broader objective of inclusion. The EU has the Youth and Move Initiative the objective of which is to foster the exchange the exchange of good practises on the issues of dissemination of materials and inclusive education. The larger initiative of the programme is to minimize the drop-out rate and enhance the chance of participation in the sectors of tertiary education. These policies provided an impetus to inclusive education and job placement schemes for people who have disabilities. In USA, it was reported that 17. 5 per cent of people with disability have been employed (Schoolchildren's attitude towards those with special needs worrying, 2018). In case of EU the rate of employment is 47. 3 per cent. In case of Singapore as of now only 270 people with disability have been employed. According to Zhuang, (2016), fr om the perspective of social model of disability, there are certain limits that are posed on the lives of children with disability. One such illustration is the state control on the providers who provide their service in terms of subsidized services for the disabled people. Secondly, it is only the social service and medical professions that remain the arenas of accessing compatible services for the disabled people (Zhuang, 2016). Propose ways that could manage the gaps and address the social issue better. Instead of an approach that concerns with providing financial aid to the victim, there should be government initiatives to sensitize the public and raise awareness. This can be done through public education. Usually pity and sympathy hover in the interaction between the disabled child and the able-bodied person. There is a need for empathetic understanding of the children with disability. According to TAN (2018), the Government has decided to spend 400 Singapore dollar for people with disabilities. The objective of this program is to focus on expansion of the jobs and adequate training of the children enrolled in special schools. There should be the implementation of the Enabling Village that would provide a space to the disabled children to attend adequate training and orientation to enter the job market. It has been found that SG Enable has played an important role in training the beneficiaries and preparing them for employment. There is a need to raise awareness about disability t hrough public education. Skits, street plays, distribution of pamphlets, documentary shown to children in school and advertisements that focus on the lifeworld of the disabled children should be the agenda of the contemporary social workers. Conclusion From the above findings it can be concluded that Singapore is definitely one of the frontrunners in the segment of disability and inclusive education, however, the country needs to amend on certain areas. The general attitude towards disability reeks of apathy and insensitivity. Children with disability needs to be treated as equals. Able-bodied children needs to socialize more with the disabled children to understand their problems and reflect on their behaviour. Awareness towards the plight of disabled students can be done through the adoption of creative methods like showing documentaries and street plays that entrenches the cause of inclusive education. References Boyle, C., Topping, K., Jindal-Snape, D. (2013). Teachers attitudes towards inclusion in high schools.Teachers and Teaching,19(5), 527-542. Florian, L. (Ed.). (2013).The SAGE handbook of special education: Two volume set. Sage. Humphrey, N., Symes, W. (2013). Inclusive education for pupils with autistic spectrum disorders in secondary mainstream schools: teacher attitudes, experience and knowledge.International Journal of Inclusive Education,17(1), 32-46. Loreman, T., Sharma, U., Forlin, C. (2013). Do pre-service teachers feel ready to teach in inclusive classrooms? A four country study of teaching self-efficacy.Australian Journal of Teacher Education (Online),38(1), 27. Oliver, M. (2013). The social model of disability: Thirty years on.Disability society,28(7), 1024-1026. Oliver, M. (2017). Defining impairment and disability.Disability and Equality Law, 3. Poon, K., Musti-Ra, S., Wettasinghe, M. (2013). Special education in Singapore: History, trends, and future directions.Intervention in School and Clinic,49(1), 59-64. Poon-McBrayer, K. F., Wong, P. M. (2013). Inclusive education services for children and youth with disabilities: Values, roles and challenges of school leaders.Children and Youth Services Review,35(9), 1520-1525. Schoolchildren's attitude towards those with special needs worrying. (2018).The Straits Times. Retrieved 9 April 2018, from https://www.straitstimes.com/forum/letters-in-print/schoolchildrens-attitude-towards-those-with-special-needs-worrying TAN, T. (2018).The hard - and heart - part of inclusiveness for the disabled.The Straits Times. Retrieved 9 April 2018, from https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/the-hard-and-heart-part-of-inclusivenes-for-the-disabled Thaver, T., Lim, L., Liau, A. (2014). Teacher variables as predictors of Singaporean pre-service teachers attitudes toward inclusive education.Published by International Association of Social Science Research,1(1), 1-8. Zhuang, K. (2016). Inclusion in Singapore: a social model analysis of disability policy.Disability Society,31(5), 622-640.